This is default featured slide 1 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 2 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 3 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 4 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

This is default featured slide 5 title

Go to Blogger edit html and find these sentences.Now replace these sentences with your own descriptions.

Monday, May 9, 2022

Method of pouring and cleaning of castings

Commonly used pouring methods in investment casting are:
1) There are the following types of thermal gravity casting methods.
This is the most widely used form of casting, that is, after the shell is removed from the roaster, it is cast at high temperature. At this time, the metal cools slowly in the mold shell, and the mold can be filled with high fluidity, so the casting can well replicate the shape of the cavity and improve the accuracy of the casting. However, the slow cooling of the casting in the hot mold will cause coarse grains, which reduces the mechanical properties of the casting. When casting carbon steel castings, the surface of the casting that cools more slowly is also prone to oxidation and decarburization, which reduces the surface hardness, finish and dimensional accuracy of the casting.invest-casting.com Precision Investment Castings China prototype company service include : High Quality Investment Casting Parts Custom,Lost Wax Investment CastingSand Casting,Lost Foam Casting,Gravity Casting,Die Casting,Graphite Casting ,Casting Moldsmanufacturers.
2) Vacuum suction casting
Put the mold shell in the vacuum casting box, and suck the gas in the mold cavity through the tiny pores in the mold shell, so that the liquid metal can better fill the mold cavity, copy the shape of the mold cavity, improve the casting accuracy, prevent pores, pouring Insufficient defects. This law has been applied abroad.
3) Crystallization under pressure
Put the shell in the pressure tank for pouring. After the end, the pressure tank is closed immediately, and high-pressure air or inert gas is introduced into the tank to solidify the casting under pressure to increase the density of the casting. The maximum pressure abroad has reached 150atm.
4) Directional crystallization (directional solidification)
Some investment castings such as turbine blades, magnetic steel, etc., if their crystalline structure is columnar crystals arranged in a certain direction, their working performance can be greatly improved, so the directional crystallization technology of investment casting is rapidly developed.
Casting cleaning
The main contents of investment casting cleaning are as follows:
(1) Remove the mold shell from the casting;
(2) Remove the casting from the pouring system;
(3) Remove the shell refractory adhering to the casting;
(4) Cleaning after heat treatment of castings, such as descaling, edge and cutting gate residues, etc.invest-casting.com Metal Casting Material include : Stainless Steel CastingAluminum CastingIron CastingBrass CastingTitanium CastingSteel Casting

The task of investment casting process design is
(1) Analyze the manufacturability of the casting structure;
(2) Select a reasonable process plan, determine the relevant casting process parameters, and draw the casting diagram on the basis of the above;
(3) Design the pouring system and determine the module structure.
It should be noted here that when considering the above three aspects, the main basis is still the basic principles of the general casting process, especially when determining the process plan and process parameters (such as casting fillet, machining allowance, process ribs, etc.) , except that the specific data is slightly different due to the technological characteristics of investment casting, the design principle is exactly the same as that of sand casting.
The task and importance of investment casting process design
Investment casting is a casting process with less or no cutting. It was also called lost wax casting in the past. Because the castings produced by the investment casting process are better than other casting methods in terms of dimensional accuracy and surface quality In addition, the investment casting method can complete the production of some complex and difficult to process castings, so it is deeply loved by enterprises.
Regarding the investment casting process, the investment casting process design is one of the most important links in the entire investment casting process. This link has a large technical difficulty factor and plays a very important role in the entire investment casting process. This link is mostly due to some professional and technical people.
Like other casting process designs, the design tasks of the investment casting process are: a. According to specific requirements, analyze the craftsmanship of the casting structure; b. Plan a reasonable process plan, determine the relevant casting process parameters, and draw the casting diagram on this basis. ;c. Design the pouring system and determine the module structure. Except for the specific data due to the slightly different process characteristics of investment casting, the design principle is exactly the same as that of sand casting.
Since the investment casting process design link is of great significance to the entire casting process, and this link has very high requirements on the quality of the designers themselves, enterprises should pay considerable attention to this link.

invest-casting.com Metal Casting Industries include : Automotive Casting ,Pump Casting ,Plumbing Sanitary Casting ,Lock Casting ,Medical Casting,Machinery Casting ,Marine Casting ,Food Machine Casting,LightingCasting.

Investment Casting Materials and Manufacturing Process

Mold material

The performance of the molding material should not only ensure the convenient production of investment molds with accurate dimensions and high surface finish, good strength and light weight, but also create conditions for the manufacture of mold shells and good castings. Molding materials are generally formulated with waxes, natural resins and plastics (synthetic resins). All mold materials mainly prepared with wax materials are called wax-based mold materials, and their melting point is low, 60~70 ° C; all mold materials mainly prepared with natural resins are called resin-based mold materials, with a slightly higher melting point, about 70 °C. ~120℃.

invest-casting.com Precision Investment Castings China prototype company service include : High Quality Investment Casting Parts Custom,Lost Wax Investment CastingSand Casting,Lost Foam Casting,Gravity Casting,Die Casting,Graphite Casting ,Casting Moldsmanufacturers.

Manufacture of Folding Investments

In the production, the method of pressing the paste mold material into the mold is mostly used to manufacture the investment mold. Before pressing the investment, a thin layer of release agent should be applied to the surface of the embossing so that the investment can be removed from the embossing. When pressing wax-based molding materials, the parting agent can be engine oil, turpentine, etc.; when pressing resin-based molding materials, a mixture of sesame oil and alcohol or silicone oil is often used as a parting agent. The thinner the parting agent layer, the better, so that the investment mold can better replicate the surface of the embossing and improve the surface finish of the investment mold. There are three methods of pressing investment, plunger pressurization method, air pressure method and piston pressurization method.

invest-casting.com Metal Casting Industries include : Automotive Casting ,Pump Casting ,Plumbing Sanitary Casting ,Lock Casting ,Medical Casting,Machinery Casting ,Marine Casting ,Food Machine Casting,LightingCasting.

Assembly of Folding Investments

The assembly of the investment mold is to combine the investment mold that forms the casting and the investment mold that forms the gating riser system. There are two main methods:
1. Welding method Use a thin soldering iron to melt the joints of the investment to weld the investment together. This method is more common.
2. Mechanical assembly method In the mass production of small investment castings, the mechanical assembly method has been widely adopted abroad to combine modules. The use of this module can greatly improve the combination and efficiency of the modules, and the working conditions have also been improved.
The main processes and processes in the shell making process are:
1) Degreasing and degreasing of modules
In order to improve the ability of the coating to wet the surface of the module, the oil stain on the surface of the module needs to be removed when the wax-based moulding material is used to make the investment mould.
2) Apply paint and sand on the module
Before painting and hanging the paint, the paint should be stirred evenly to reduce the precipitation of refractory materials in the paint bucket as much as possible, and the viscosity or specific gravity of the paint should be adjusted so that the paint can fill and wet the investment mold well. The module is immersed in the paint and shakes up and down, so that the paint can well wet the investment mold and evenly cover the surface of the module. After the paint is applied, sanding can be carried out.
3) Shell drying and hardening
After each layer of shell is coated, it must be dried and hardened, so that the binder in the coating changes from sol to jelly and gel, and connects the refractory materials together.
4) Loss of investment from the shell
After the shell is completely hardened, the module needs to be melted from the shell. Because the module is usually made of wax-based mold material, this process is also called dewaxing. According to the different heating methods, there are many dewaxing methods, the hot water method and the same pressure steam method are used more.
5) Roasted shell
If molding (sand filling) is required for pouring, before firing, the demolded shell should be buried in the sand in the box, and then fired in a furnace. If the high temperature strength of the shell is high and no casting is required, the demolded shell can be directly sent to the furnace for roasting. During roasting, the furnace temperature is gradually increased, and the shell is heated to 800-1000 ° C and kept for a period of time before pouring.

invest-casting.com Metal Casting Material include : Stainless Steel CastingAluminum CastingIron CastingBrass CastingTitanium CastingSteel Casting

What is investment casting ?

What is investment casting ?
Investment casting, also known as lost wax casting, includes processes such as pressing wax, wax repairing, tree forming, dipping, wax melting, molten metal casting and post-processing. Lost wax casting is to use wax to make a wax mold of the part to be cast, and then coat the wax mold with mud, which is a mud mold. After the clay mold is dry, put it in hot water to melt the inner wax mold. Take out the clay mold that has melted the wax casting mold and then bake it into a pottery mold. Once roasted. Generally, the pouring port is left when the mud mold is made, and then the molten metal is poured from the pouring port. After cooling, the required parts are made.

invest-casting.com Metal Casting Material include : Stainless Steel CastingAluminum CastingIron CastingBrass CastingTitanium CastingSteel Casting

Introduction to Investment Casting


When using wax to make patterns, investment casting is also called "lost wax casting". Investment casting usually refers to making a pattern in a fusible material, coating the surface of the pattern with several layers of refractory material to make a mold shell, and then melting the pattern out of the mold shell to obtain a mold without parting surface. A casting solution that can be filled with sand casting. Because the patterns are widely made of waxy materials, investment casting is often referred to as "lost wax casting".
The types of alloys that can be produced by investment casting include carbon steel, alloy steel, heat-resistant alloys, stainless steel, precision alloys, permanent magnet alloys, bearing alloys, copper alloys, aluminum alloys, titanium alloys, and ductile iron.
The shape of investment castings is generally more complex, the minimum diameter of the holes that can be cast on the castings can reach 0.5mm, and the minimum wall thickness of the castings is 0.3mm. In production, some parts that were originally composed of several parts can be designed into integral parts by changing the structure of the parts and directly cast by investment casting, so as to save processing time and consumption of metal materials, and make the part structure more accurate. to be reasonable.
The weight of investment castings Company is mostly zero to dozens of Newtons (from a few grams to more than ten kilograms, generally not more than 25 kilograms). It is more troublesome to use the investment casting method to produce too heavy castings.
The investment casting process is complicated and difficult to control, and the materials used and consumed are more expensive, so it is suitable for the production of small parts with complex shapes, high precision requirements, or difficult to perform other processing, such as turbine engine blades.

invest-casting.com Metal Casting Industries include : Automotive Casting ,Pump Casting ,Plumbing Sanitary Casting ,Lock Casting ,Medical Casting,Machinery Casting ,Marine Casting ,Food Machine Casting,LightingCasting.

advantage


The dimensional accuracy of investment castings is relatively high, generally reaching CT4-6 (CT10~13 for sand casting and CT5~7 for die casting). Of course, due to the complex process of investment casting, there are many factors that affect the dimensional accuracy of castings, such as mold casting. The shrinkage of the material, the deformation of the investment mold, the linear change of the shell during the heating and cooling process, the shrinkage rate of the alloy, and the deformation of the casting during the solidification process, etc., so the dimensional accuracy of ordinary investment castings is high, but its Consistency still needs to be improved (the dimensional consistency of castings using medium and high temperature waxes is much improved).
When pressing the investment mold, a mold with a high surface finish of the cavity is used, so the surface finish of the investment mold is also relatively high. In addition, the shell is made of high temperature-resistant special binder and refractory paint prepared from refractory materials, which is coated and hung on the investment mold, and the inner surface of the cavity that is in direct contact with the molten metal has a high smoothness. Therefore, the surface finish of investment castings is higher than that of general castings, generally reaching Ra.1.6~3.2μm.
The biggest advantage of investment casting is that investment castings have high dimensional accuracy and surface finish, so machining work can be reduced, just leave a little machining allowance on parts with higher requirements, and even some castings only Leave grinding, polishing allowance, can be used without machining. It can be seen that the use of investment casting method can save a lot of machine tool equipment and processing time, and greatly save metal raw materials.
Another advantage of the investment casting method is that it can cast complex castings of various alloys, especially superalloy castings. For example, the blade of a jet engine has a streamlined outline and an inner cavity for cooling, which can hardly be formed by machining. The investment casting process can not only achieve mass production and ensure the consistency of castings, but also avoid the stress concentration of residual knife lines after machining.


manufacture


The first process of investment casting production is to manufacture the investment mold. The investment mold is used to form the model of the cavity in the refractory shell. Therefore, in order to obtain castings with high dimensional accuracy and surface finish, the investment mold itself should have a high size. Precision and surface finish. In addition, the performance of the investment mold itself should also make the subsequent processes such as shell making as simple as possible. In order to obtain the investment mold with the above-mentioned high-quality requirements, in addition to having a good pressing shape (the mold for pressing the investment mold), it is also necessary to select the appropriate molding material (referred to as the mold material) and a reasonable molding process.

invest-casting.com Precision Investment Castings China prototype company service include : High Quality Investment Casting Parts Custom,Lost Wax Investment CastingSand Casting,Lost Foam Casting,Gravity Casting,Die Casting,Graphite Casting ,Casting Moldsmanufacturers.

Thursday, April 28, 2022

HLAA News (in this message: 2 new items)

HLAA News (in this message: 2 new items)

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

Over-the-Counter Hearing Aids Will Soon be Available to Millions of Americans

Posted: 27 Apr 2022 09:30 AM PDT

Barbara Kelley Executive Director Hearing Loss Association of America By Barbara Kelley, Executive Director, Hearing Loss Association of America Follow Barbara on Twitter, @Bkelley_HLAA. HLAA Helps...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

HLAA Position: Chapter Engagement Manager

Posted: 27 Apr 2022 09:29 AM PDT

The Hearing Loss Association of America (HLAA) opens the world of communication to people with hearing loss through information, education, support and advocacy. With more than 48 million Americans...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Monday, April 11, 2022

HLAA News: Reminders for HLAA Chapters and State Organizations

HLAA News: Reminders for HLAA Chapters and State Organizations

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

Reminders for HLAA Chapters and State Organizations

Posted: 11 Apr 2022 11:44 AM PDT

IRS Filing Date is May 15 It is very important to file your 990 to keep your tax-exempt status and to avoid possible revocation from the IRS. Revocation could significantly impact the chapters' and...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Wednesday, April 6, 2022

HLAA News: The Power of “CODA”

HLAA News: The Power of “CODA”

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

The Power of “CODA”

Posted: 05 Apr 2022 10:56 AM PDT

Carrie Johnson Senior Communications Manager Hearing Loss Association of America By Carrie Johnson, Senior Communications Manager, Hearing Loss Association of America The Apple TV+ film "CODA"...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Wednesday, March 30, 2022

HLAA News (in this message: 2 new items)

HLAA News (in this message: 2 new items)

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

Combatting Isolation: Tips to Stay “In the Loop,” Regardless of Hearing Ability

Posted: 29 Mar 2022 09:59 AM PDT

John Kinstler Outreach Marketing Manager CapTel Captioned Telephone, Inc. By John Kinstler, Outreach Marketing Manager, CapTel Captioned Telephone, Inc. CapTel Captioned Telephone, Inc. is an HLAA...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

What’s New at the HLAA 2022 Convention?

Posted: 28 Mar 2022 09:30 AM PDT

Carrie Johnson Senior Communications Manager Hearing Loss Association of America By Carrie Johnson, Senior Communications Manager, Hearing Loss Association of America Are you ready for some fun in...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Sunday, March 13, 2022

Process Analysis of CNC Machining Parts Drawing

Process Analysis of CNC Machining Parts Drawing

 

(1) The method of dimensioning in the drawings of CNC machining parts

 

The size on the part drawing is an important basis for manufacturing and inspecting parts. In the production (Produce), the size of the part drawing is required to be free of any errors. CNC machining General CNC machining usually refers to computer digital control precision machining, CNC machining lathe, CNC machining milling machine, laser cutting china, etc. The feed route of finishing is basically carried out along the part contour sequence. Therefore, the focus of determining the feed route is to determine the feed route of rough machining and idle stroke. In addition to correct, complete, and clear requirements for marking the size on the part drawing, rationality should also be considered. It should not only meet the design requirements, but also facilitate processing and measurement. ? Regarding dimensioning, it mainly includes functional dimensions, non-functional dimensions, nominal dimensions, basic dimensions, reference dimensions, repeat dimensions, and so on. The dimensions marked on the part drawing are complete and correct, making it easy for the processor to analyze, measure, and process. According to these dimensional accuracy (accuracy), the blank is determined to be Φ95*250mm and the material is 45 steel.

 

(2), analyze (Analyse) the geometric elements of the contour of the CNC machining aluminum parts

 

The contour of the part is mainly composed of cylindrical surface, spherical surface, groove (gōucáo), keyway, inner hole and so on. CNC machining is a process method for parts processing on CNC machine tools. The process regulations of CNC machine tool processing and traditional machine tool processing are generally the same, but significant changes have also taken place. A machining method that uses digital information to control the displacement of parts and tools. It is an effective way to solve the problems of variable parts, small batches, complex shapes, and high precision, and to achieve high-efficiency and automated processing.

 

(3) Analyse the structure and craftsmanship of CNC machining parts

 

The part is a slender shaft. The slender shaft has the characteristics of small diameter and too long length. The length of the suspension body is too long when processed, and it is easy to vibrate the knife or the surface roughness value of the processing is too low, so it must be used for processing. Auxiliary tool holder and auxiliary fixture. CNC machining General CNC machining usually refers to computer digital control precision machining, CNC machining lathe, CNC machining milling machine, metal forging and milling machine, etc. The feed route of finishing is basically carried out along the part contour sequence. Therefore, the focus of determining the feed route is to determine the feed route of rough machining and idle stroke. There is also something to pay attention to during heat treatment, because it will deform after being hardened by cold work, resulting in a bowing or S-shape.

 

(4) Analyse the precision (precision) and technical requirements of CNC machining parts

 

The precision (precision) and various technical requirements of this part are complete and reasonable

The CNC machining precision (precision) in this process is required to be high. This requirement can be met in the CNC machine tool (attribute: automated machine tool). The machining is divided into three types: rough machining, semi-finishing and finishing. The procedure is carried out.

. The left end of the outer circle size of Φ90 in the figure has higher position accuracy (precision) requirements. All procedures in this section should be completed in one clamping process, except for the keyway.

. For surfaces that require high surface roughness, the circumferential constant linear speed should be used for cutting.

Copyright notice: This article comes from https://be-cu.com/

 

Tuesday, March 8, 2022

The Influence of CNC Turning and Milling Machining on Turning Efficiency

The cutting efficiency of CNC lathes will be affected by human factors, environmental factors and the machine tool itself. Let's talk about the influence of cutting amount and cutting tools on CNC lathe processing among many factors.

 

Reasonable cutting amount can improve the efficiency of CNC lathe. When the laser cutting speed is increased by 10 times and the feed rate is increased by 20 times, far beyond the traditional cutting forbidden zone, the cutting mechanism has undergone a fundamental change.

 

The result of CNC turning and milling combined processing is: the metal removal rate per unit power is increased by 30% to 40%, the cutting force is reduced by 30%, the cutting life of the tool is increased by 70%, and the cutting left on the workpiece is greatly reduced. Heat, cutting vibration almost disappeared; cutting processing has taken an essential leap. According to the current situation of CNC lathes, increase the feed per tooth, improve productivity and tool life.

  

The effect of CNC milling and turning compound machining of ear cutters on CNC lathes is like the effect of wheels on automobiles. The material used to make the tool must have high high temperature hardness and wear resistance, necessary bending strength, impact toughness and chemical inertness, good manufacturability (wire cutting, metal forging, sueface treatment, etc.), and not easy to deform. A good tool can improve the efficiency of machining and the accuracy of the workpiece to be cut.

  

Other factors such as power supply, familiar operation, reasonable materials and other factors will affect the processing of CNC lathes.

 

Copyright notice: This article comes from https://be-cu.com/

What is brass, red copper and red copper, and what is the difference?

1. Brass is an alloy composed of copper and zinc. Brass composed of copper and zinc is called ordinary brass. If it is a variety of alloys composed of more than two elements, it is called special brass. Brass parts has strong wear resistance. Brass is often used to make valves, water pipes, connecting pipes for internal and external air conditioners, and radiators.

 

2. Red copper, also known as red copper, is a simple substance of copper, so named because of its purple-red color. See copper parts for various properties. Red copper is industrial pure copper with a melting point of 1083°C, no allotropic transformation, and a relative density of 8.9, which is five times that of magnesium parts. The mass of the same volume is about 15% heavier than ordinary steel parts.

 

The red copper is generally called red copper because of its rose red color and purple after forming an oxide film on the surface. It is copper containing a certain amount of oxygen, so it is also called oxygen-containing copper.

 

3. Red copper is pure copper, also known as red copper parts, which is a simple substance of copper, and it is named because of its purple-red color. See copper for various properties. Red copper is industrial pure copper with a melting point of 1083°C, no allotropic transformation, and a relative density of 8.9, which is five times that of magnesium.

 

The mass of the same volume is about 15% heavier than ordinary steel. Because it has a rose red color and is purple after an oxide film is formed on the surface treatment, it is generally called copper. It is copper containing a certain amount of oxygen, so it is also called oxygen-containing copper.

 

Red copper has good electrical and thermal conductivity, excellent plasticity, and is easy to be processed by hot and cold pressure. It is widely used in the manufacture of wire cutting, cables, electric brushes, electric spark copper and other products that require good electrical conductivity.

 

The difference between copper and brass

 

1. Appearance color

 

Brass: It is light golden yellow and shiny.

 

Copper: Rose red, shiny.

 

2. Ingredients

 

Red copper: The content of copper has reached 99.9%.

 

Brass: about 60% of copper; about 40% of zinc parts; some grades contain about 1% of lead, which is impurity.

 

3. Strength

 

Brass: higher.

 

Copper: lower.

 

4. Density

 

The density of brass (8.93g/cm3) is mostly used for mechanical bearing lining, and it is wear-resistant. metal castings are often used to make valves and pipe fittings.

 

Red copper. Pure copper, also known as red copper, has a density (7.83g/cm3), a melting point of 1083 degrees, and is non-magnetic.

Copyright notice: This article comes from https://be-cu.com/

 

Thursday, March 3, 2022

HLAA News: ASHA and HLAA Stress Need for Hearing Protection Across the Lifespan This World Hearing Day, With Millions at Risk for Preventable Damage

HLAA News: ASHA and HLAA Stress Need for Hearing Protection Across the Lifespan This World Hearing Day, With Millions at Risk for Preventable Damage

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

ASHA and HLAA Stress Need for Hearing Protection Across the Lifespan This World Hearing Day, With Millions at Risk for Preventable Damage

Posted: 02 Mar 2022 09:12 AM PST

  Annual Awareness Day Brings New Global Standard From the World Health Organization for Safe Noise Levels at Concert Venues and Other Public Places (Rockville, MD – March 2, 2022) With 1 in 8...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Friday, February 25, 2022

HLAA News: Why We Celebrate World Hearing Day

HLAA News: Why We Celebrate World Hearing Day

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

Why We Celebrate World Hearing Day

Posted: 24 Feb 2022 10:01 AM PST

Carrie Johnson Senior Communications Manager Hearing Loss Association of America By Carrie Johnson, Senior Communications Manager, Hearing Loss Association of America On March 3, HLAA joins with the...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Thursday, February 17, 2022

HLAA News: How Will HLAA Chapters Celebrate Better Hearing Month?

HLAA News: How Will HLAA Chapters Celebrate Better Hearing Month?

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

How Will HLAA Chapters Celebrate Better Hearing Month?

Posted: 15 Feb 2022 01:00 PM PST

May is Better Hearing Month. HLAA wants to highlight what HLAA Chapters plan to do to celebrate and encourage hearing health and how to live well with hearing loss. Will chapters host an event online...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...

Thursday, February 10, 2022

HLAA News: We All are Accessibility Leaders

HLAA News: We All are Accessibility Leaders

Link to Hearing Loss Association of America

We All are Accessibility Leaders

Posted: 08 Feb 2022 09:58 AM PST

Barbara Kelley Executive Director Hearing Loss Association of America By Barbara Kelley, Executive Director, Hearing Loss Association of America Follow Barbara on Twitter, @Bkelley_HLAA. This...

Blog content summary only, click the Blog Title to Read More...