Friday, November 8, 2019

The comprehensive characteristics of the deaf’s psychology

1. Cognitive characteristics

Deaf people lose their hearing, communicate with others by gesture language, acquire information by visual organ and communicate with each other. Therefore, visual sensitivity and image thinking are very developed, while logical thinking and abstract thinking are relatively poor.

The cognitive characteristics of those who deviate from behavior and personality are mainly poor reality, easy to leave reality to think about problems, with strong fantasy color, and the thinking method shows obvious one sidedness, also shows paranoia tendency, and can have delusion in serious cases.

2. Personality

There is no systematic study on the personality of hearing disabled people. There are two reasons for this situation: first, due to the lack of research and development, there is not enough literature for people to refer to. Second, hearing disabled people do not have a distinctive "deaf personality" which is different from ordinary people. Because personality is the result of individual socialization. It is formed and developed in a certain social relationship, and it is shown in a certain social relationship. Hearing loss can not change people's social relations in essence, nor can it change the influence of social relations on the formation of personality. It can only be said that deafness and the language barrier caused by deafness will have a certain impact on the formation of some of their psychological characteristics, so that some aspects of psychological characteristics show a certain degree of universality. Nevertheless, the common characteristics of hearing disabled people are not unique to them. For example, some foreign scholars think that "deaf children often treat people with poor manners because they can't speak, have conflicts and tedious feelings in life, are depressed in spirit and can't vent.". Because of its lack of judgment, if someone is found to be joking, he will suspect that he is ridiculing himself, and there are often misunderstandings and grumpy behaviors. " If it is assumed that "grumpiness" is a common psychological reaction of the deaf, then the "grumpiness" behavior of the normal people can not be explained, so it can not be considered as a unique personality characteristic of the deaf.

At present, the characteristics of hearing disabled people are often listed. "The listing of personality characteristics always shows that children have more problems of adaptation than normal children, and they show the characteristics of action fixation, self-centered, lack of internal control, impulse and suggestibility," wrote meDo, an American scholar In his book & lt; Educational Psychology & gt;, Takahashi of Japan wrote: "deaf children have difficulties in ideological exchange and narrow social experience. Therefore, their behavior characteristics in all aspects of society and emotion are generally significantly behind the normal children. The main characteristics are timidity, excessive blind obedience and so on When he Huaguo, a Taiwanese scholar, cited the behavioral characteristics of hearing impaired students, he said: "if a student can't listen, his personality and behavior problems can follow. He may also appear particularly fluid in search of compensation. Some students often show the behavior of flinching, stubbornness or shyness

Some people engaged in the education of deaf children in our country have summed up some characteristics of deaf children's personality, such as aloofness, arrogance or inferiority, impatience, one-sided subjectivity, strong suspicion, selfishness, etc. Deaf people are extroverted, have strong emotional response, and have high frequency but short duration. He is forthright and upright in character, and "good" means "good" and "bad" means "bad". When we observe problems, we often only see the surface phenomenon of the problems, but not pay attention to the internal relations of the problems. Some deaf people tend to think about the immediate world with little long-term interests. Some deaf people prefer the direct expression of material world and emotion, but are not willing to explore the connotation of knowledge world. They analyze life through direct pleasure, concrete actions and their emotional expression.

3. Treatment and training

According to the international general classification method, the degree of deafness can be divided into mild, moderate, severe deafness and total deafness. The hearing threshold (the lowest number of decibels that can be heard) of mild deafness is about 10-30 decibels; the hearing threshold of moderate deafness is about 50 decibels; the hearing threshold of severe deafness is over 60 decibels, and the shouting can be heard; the hearing threshold is about 10-30 decibels More than 90 decibels can be regarded as total deafness.

Mild deafness has little effect on the formation of children's speech; moderate deafness can lead to unclear speech, so we should go to the hospital to check the hearing analyzer, find out the cause of the disease and treat it, and ask the doctor to help with hearing aids. If the treatment is timely, we can avoid the deaf mute disease; although severe deafness can also ask the doctor to wear hearing aids, we should ask special education experts for guidance as soon as possible, and adopt special methods. Early speech training.

4. Memory characteristics

1) the general memory characteristics of hearing disabled people: it is mainly manifested in the memory of Chinese materials. Its remarkable characteristics are slow memory and fast memory. There are three main reasons for this feature: ① it is related to the perception characteristics of hearing disabled people. As we all know, the communicative function of language is realized by the material form of phonetics acting on human speech analyzer. Hearing loss can not perceive or clearly perceive the sound stimulus of language, thus losing the most important and frequent way to perceive language. Thus, the memory of language materials is not firm and accurate. In addition, the lack of neural connection between speech auditory and speech kinesthetic, the lack of auditory supervision of pronunciation, the weakening of regulatory function, inaccurate pronunciation, and inaccurate memory. It is related to the method of memory. The slow development of language is the biggest limitation caused by hearing disability. Hearing disabled children, since childhood, can't acquire language, and their understanding of language is very poor. Therefore, most of the language materials are mechanically memorized. Taking recall sentences as an example, they tend to recite the sentences word by word, not reorganize the sentences according to the meaning, and not change another statement flexibly. This way of memorizing is much more difficult than just memorizing the meaning of the sentence, so the effect of memorizing is poor. ③ it is related to too few opportunities for reinforcement. We estimate a person's waking time of 14 hours every day. When a normal child wakes up, all kinds of speech activities are always accompanied by other activities, and the absolute quiet period of "no speech" is very few. However, the speech activities of a school-age hearing disabled child are limited to the classroom every day, and the effective time of speech activities for him is less than the class time. Reinforcement is a necessary condition for memory consolidation, and the lack of reinforcement is also an important reason for deaf children to forget quickly.

(2) the characteristics of image memory of hearing disabled people: some research results show that there is a strong tendency in the memory of hearing disabled children: the memory image changes obviously soon, and the differences between the images of different things are gradually blurred until they are confused into the same phenomenon. This is more obvious in the hearing disabled children in the early and middle school age. With the growth of age and knowledge, there is a contrary tendency, that is, more and more attention is paid to the differences between the appearances of things, instead of confusing them.

(3) the visual image memory characteristics of hearing disabled people: when the stimulus is a combination of points and lines and the presentation time is very short (0.04 seconds), its reproduction performance is even better than that of normal children.

(4) motor memory and emotional memory of hearing disabled people: there is no significant difference between hearing disabled people and normal people in this respect, and their mastery of many operating skills is not lower than that of normal people.

5. Thinking characteristics

Because of the close relationship between thinking and language, the characteristics of hearing disabled people's thinking largely depend on their dependence on language. Because of this, the thinking of deaf mute children is regarded by some scholars as a "natural experiment" to study the relationship between thinking and language. In the United States, Firth wrote a book about hearing disabled people, called & lt; thinking without language & gt;. When we discuss the thinking characteristics of hearing disabled people, we must also discuss whether the thinking operation can be separated from the language. Hearing disabled children can think logically without a language system, but mastering the language system (gesture language) is very helpful for them to solve problems or complete learning tasks.

Some scholars divide the development of normal children's thinking into three main stages: intuitive action thinking, concrete image thinking and abstract thinking. The thinking development of hearing disabled children also experienced these three stages. Some experimental studies show that the development of the first two stages, hearing disabled children are not lagging behind the normal children of the same age, only in the third stage. Because the third stage of thinking is more closely related to mastering the language of abstract generalization. Some people use the experimental method of "functional fixation" to study the characteristics of the lack of flexibility of the thinking of hearing disabled people. It is found that hearing disabled children lack the ability of functional flexibility more than normal children. They are often limited by the concept of the inherent use of tools or materials, which limits their thinking ability. This shows that children with hearing disabilities have a low degree of thinking generalization, and it is difficult to see the more "general" common factors between objects. Compared with normal children, they show more fear of difficulties and lack of enthusiasm for solving such issues.

Zhang Ningsheng of Liaoning Normal University and his colleagues conducted a study in 1985 in collaboration with Dr. erderech of Arizona University in the United States to assess the impact of severe hearing loss on cognitive ability. In this study

Link:The comprehensive characteristics of the deaf's psychology

Source from the China listed hearing aids factory and supplier: JINGHAO Hearing Aids.

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